Tanpa memiliki pengetahuan tentang bagaimana huruf-huruf dalam suatu kata diucapkan, anak-anak akan mengalami kesulitan dalam mengenal dan mengingat kata, sehingga mereka cenderung mendapat masalah besar dalam membaca dan menulis. Dengan menguasai phonics, anak-anak dapat dengan mudah memahami isi wacana, menulis berbagai bentuk tulisan, termasuk membuat puisi dengan kata-kata berima yang tepat.

Semangat kerjasama. Kesadaran akan pentingnya kerjasama bisa sepenuhnya dipupuk lewat olahraga tim; hal ini khususnya sangat penting bagi banyak anak tunggal. Anak-anak bisa belajar cara bekerjasama dengan orang lain, cara menggunakan keunggulan mereka dalam kelompok, serta cara memaksimalkan kepentingan tim. Dalam latihan umum dan kompetisi olahraga, anak-anak bisa memahami bahwa kepentingan kelompok berada di atas kepentingan pribadi. Mereka tak boleh bersikap egois dan mengabaikan anggota kelompok, mereka harus tahu cara mematuhi pelatih, memahami cara bertanggungjawab dengan penuh keberanian, dan berani bertanya. Anak-anak dalam lingkungan olahraga seperti ini juga akan tumbuh menjadi anak yang tahu cara menghormati orang lain dan tahu cara mendapatkan rasa hormat dari orang lain.
We searched the following databases in July 2012: CENTRAL 2012 (Issue 6), MEDLINE 1948 to June week 3 2012, EMBASE 1980 to 2012 week 26, DARE 2013 (Issue 6), ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to current), CINAHL (1938 to current), Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index ‐ Science (1990 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index ‐ Social Science & Humanities (1990 to 29 June 2012), ZETOC, Index to Theses‐UK and Ireland, ClinicalTrials.gov, ICTRP, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, DART Europe E‐theses Portal, Australasian Digital Theses Program, Education Research Theses, Electronic Theses Online System, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. Theses Canada portal, www.dissertation.com, and www.thesisabstracts.com. We also contacted experts and examined the reference lists of published studies.
Scope and sequence is also important because it helps children to organize information into cognitive categories, or “file folders,” that support better cognitive storage and retrieval of information. For example, if one teaches information without a scope and sequence, one might move from teaching the short a sound in a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) pattern (e.g., bag), to teaching the vowel digraph oa (e.g., boat), to teaching ch (e.g., chip), to teaching i_e (e.g., bike). It would be a lot easier to remember these patterns if they were taught in groups: for example, teaching all the short vowel sounds (a, e, i, o, and u), consonant digraphs that represent unique sounds (th, sh, ch), all the CVC-e (silent e) patterns (mate, Pete, bike, note, cute), and then both of the spelling patterns that represent the /oi/ sound (called a diphthong; oy and oi). If instruction follows a scope and sequence, the variations don’t seem random but rather work to form a category (e.g., “Oh this th is kind of like the ch, two letters that make a new consonant sound”).
Yang terpenting adalah menumbuhkan karakter dan semangat lewat olahraga. Semangat olahraga adalah persaingan sehat. Setiap kompetisi olahraga mempunyai aturan yang jelas. Semua pihak yang terlibat harus mematuhi peraturan, menghormati otoritas dan bersaing secara adil. Anak-anak harus mengikuti peraturan, menghormati keputusan wasit dan bersikap adil, agar mereka tumbuh menjadi sosok yang jujur dan adil dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.
Short vowels are the five single letter vowels, a, e, i, o, and u, when they produce the sounds /æ/ as in cat, /ɛ/ as in bet, /ɪ/ as in sit, /ɒ/ or /ɑ/ as in hot, and /ʌ/ as in cup. The term "short vowel" is historical, and meant that at one time (in Middle English) these vowels were pronounced for a particularly short period of time; currently, it means just that they are not diphthongs like the long vowels.

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In the 1980s, the "whole language" approach to reading further polarized the debate in the United States. Whole language instruction was predicated on the principle that children could learn to read given (a) proper motivation, (b) access to good literature, (c) many reading opportunities, (d) focus on meaning, and (e) instruction to help students use meaning clues to determine the pronunciation of unknown words. For some advocates of whole language, phonics was antithetical to helping new readers to get the meaning; they asserted that parsing words into small chunks and reassembling them had no connection to the ideas the author wanted to convey.


A final point about letter-name knowledge: it is often noted that letter-name knowledge in preschool and kindergarten is a strong predictor of children’s later literacy achievement. This is true, but it is not because letter-name knowledge is an even-close-to-sufficient contributor to actual reading or writing. It is helpful, but some children learn to read knowing only letter sounds—no letter names. The predictive power of letter names lies largely in the fact that it is a proxy for other things. Children who know letter names early are more likely to have experienced a substantial emphasis on print literacy in the home and to have attended a strong preschool, for example, which in turn increase the likelihood of higher later reading and writing achievement. Naming letters is only one facet of letter knowledge, and probably not even the most important one. It is the application of letter-sound knowledge that advances children’s reading and spelling.
Synthetic phonics, also known as blended phonics, is a method employed to teach children to read by blending the English sounds to form words. This method involves learning how letters or letter groups represent individual sounds, and that those sounds are blended to form a word. For example, shrouds would be read by pronouncing the sounds for each spelling "/ʃ, r, aʊ, d, z/" and then blending those sounds orally to produce a spoken word, "/ʃraʊdz/." The goal of either a blended phonics or synthetic phonics instructional programme is that students identify the sound-symbol correspondences and blend their phonemes automatically. Since 2005, synthetic phonics has become the accepted method of teaching reading (by phonics instruction) in the United Kingdom and Australia. In the US, a pilot programme using the Core Knowledge Early Literacy programme that used this type of phonics approach showed significantly higher results in K-3 reading compared with comparison schools.[14]
The executive summary states, "The evidence is clear ... that direct systematic instruction in phonics during the early years of schooling is an essential foundation for teaching children to read. Findings from the research evidence indicate that all students learn best when teachers adopt an integrated approach to reading that explicitly teaches phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary knowledge and comprehension." The Inquiry Committee also states that the apparent dichotomy between phonics and the whole-Language approach to teaching "is false". However, it goes on to say "It was clear, however, that systematic phonics instruction is critical if children are to be taught to read well, whether or not they experience reading difficulties."[44]

Some educators feel there are words that do not follow these phonics rules, such as were, who, and you.[12] They are often called "sight words" because they are memorized by sight with the whole language approach. These words should not be placed on a Word Wall to avoid confusion for a student learning beginning sounds. However, teachers of Synthetic phonics believe that most words are decodable and do not need to be memorized. For example, they point out that the word "were" is decodable because it contains two sounds, /w/-/er/. It is only necessary for the student to learn the various ways of spelling the sounds.[13]
English has absorbed many words from other languages throughout its history, usually without changing the spelling of those words. As a result, the written form of English includes the spelling patterns of many languages (Old English, Old Norse, Norman French, Classical Latin and Greek, as well as numerous modern languages) superimposed upon one another.[7] These overlapping spelling patterns mean that in many cases the same sound can be spelled differently and the same spelling can represent different sounds. However, the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions.[8] In addition, the Great Vowel Shift, a historical linguistic process in which the quality of many vowels in English changed while the spelling remained as it was, greatly diminished the transparency of English spelling in relation to pronunciation.
Consonant digraphs are those spellings wherein two letters are used to represent a single consonant phoneme. The most common consonant digraphs are ch for /tʃ/, ng for /ŋ/, ph for /f/, sh for /ʃ/, th for /θ/ and /ð/. Letter combinations like wr for /r/ and kn for /n/ are technically also consonant digraphs, although they are so rare that they are sometimes considered patterns with "silent letters".
Kim Burnim: Of course. The letter c, for example, sometimes stands for the same sound as the letter k, as in the word “cat,” and sometimes stands for the same sound as the letter s, as in the word “city.” The most common sound for the letter c is the “k” sound, so that’s what we teach children first. Another example is the letter a—sometimes it represents the short a sound, as in the word “cap,” and sometimes it represents the long a sound, as in the word cape. We usually teach the short a sound first, because that’s more common, and then teach the long a sound later on.
Kim Burnim: It’s a complicated-sounding phrase for something that’s really very simple: the ability to identify separate sounds in words. For example, when you hear the word “cat,” you probably can identify three different sounds in that word—the sound of the c, the sound of the a, and the sound of the t. Or to put it another way, you are aware of three different sounds. Language experts call each of the different sounds that appear in spoken words phonemes, so when you can identify the three phonemes in the word “cat” you are showing that you have phonemic awareness.
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