Phonemic awareness involves the understanding of the relationship between sounds and words. It explains how words are made of sounds that can be used, like reusable building blocks, to construct words (h + at = hat, f + at = fat, etc). Phonics goes one step further by connecting those sounds to written symbols. It involves learning how letters or letter groups represent unique sounds, and how those sounds are blended to form a word.

tecnorati – Jika kedengarannya seperti berlebihan, pertimbangkan bahwa, dengan beberapa perkiraan, sebanyak 40 persen populasi orang dewasa di AS memiliki setidaknya beberapa kesulitan membaca. Menurut National Society of Collegiate Scholars (NSCS), buta huruf di Amerika menyumbang sekitar 225 miliar dolar dalam penurunan produktivitas. Kebanyakan orang dapat memperkirakan dari sana, tetapi cukup untuk mengatakan bahwa tingkat pendidikan berkorelasi kuat dengan pendapatan, yang pada gilirannya berkorelasi kuat dengan kepuasan karir, pemenuhan yang lebih besar, dan banyak dari penanda moneternya.
Kebanyakan penulisan kata Bahasa Inggris berbeda dengan cara pengucapannya. Manfaat metode fonik ini adalah anak Anda bisa merangkai pengucapan kosakata Bahasa Inggris dengan baik dan benar berdasarkan bunyi yang telah dipelajari. Jika Anda terus menggunakan metode fonik ini, anak Anda bisa merangkai bunyi-bunyi huruf sampai si kecil dapat membaca kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris. Berikan latihan membaca berupa kata-kata pilihan atau kalimat sederhana untuk melatih mereka membunyikan kata-kata atau kalimat tersebut. Lakukan secara rutin sampai anak Anda membaca dengan lancar.
The goal of phonics is to enable beginning readers to decode new written words by sounding them out, or, in phonics terms, blending the sound-spelling patterns. Since it focuses on the spoken and written units within words, phonics is a sublexical approach and, as a result, is often contrasted with whole language, a word-level-up philosophy for teaching reading.
Meskipun dana beasiswa mepet, tidak sedikit pelajar Indonesia yang memboyong keluarganya ke Perth. Bagi saya, kesempatan memperoleh pendidikan di luar negeri pada usia dini sama pentingnya dengan studi S3. Masa depan anak-anak tetaplah hal yang terpenting dalam keluarga, dan banyak teman-teman pelajar yang memaksa diri untuk belajar sekaligus bekerja supaya hal ini terwujud. It’s worth it, InsyaAllah!
Jika anda penggemar menonton Film apalagi suka mendownload film online, ada baiknya anda menonton dan mendownload film favorit anda tidak menggunakan subtitle bahasa Indonesia. Usahakan dalam menonton dan download film favorit anda gunakan subtitle bahasa inggris. Ini berfungsi untuk melatih pendengaran anda dan membiasakan mendengar bahasa inggris. Dengan cara menonton dan mendengar Film menggunakan subtitle bahasa inggris anda terbiasa dan diharapkan mampu memahami percakapan yang akan anda lakukan.
Penelitian eksperimen ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas metode Jolly Phonics untuk menstimulasi kemampuan kesiapan membaca anak usia dini. Subjek berjumlah 28 siswa yang duduk di bangku Taman Kanak-kanak. Evaluasi berupa pretest dan posttest mengenal huruf, dengan indikator kemampuan mengidentifikasi huruf dan kemampuan menyebutkan bunyi huruf. Perbedaan skor dianalisis menggunakan teknik statistik paired sample t test. Hasil penelitian disimpulkan metode Jolly Phonics efektif untuk menstimulasikesiapan membaca anak usia dini. Kata-
Andai ya, kita bisa bangun dipagi hari dan berada di tempat yang kita inginkan baik secara fisik, mental, emosional dan spiritual.⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Tapi kita tahu, ini nih mimpi doang. Kenyataannya nggak seperti di IG newsfeed atau youtubers channel. Nggak ada yang namanya bangun dan langsung sukses! Ada perjalanan yang harus ditempuh, ada jalan yang harus dipilih, ada cerita dibalik setiap kesuksesan, dan banyak diantara semua proses ini dilalui dengan rasa sakit dan pergumulan. Ada banyak pilihan yang bikin hidup jadi kacau Dan ada banyak juga pilihan yang tidak mau kita pilih untuk kita jalani. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Tapi, Dengan mudahnya kita melihat orang lain yang percaya apa yang kita percayai dan “sukses” menjalaninya atau kira-kira itu yang kita pikirkan. Dan kita pikir semua yang di jalani orang tersebut adalah kesuksesan dalam semalam. Seperti kayak mereka bangun tidur besoknya udah sukses aja! ⠀⠀⠀ Daripada kita mengabaikan fakta bahwa berproses dan melalui perjalanan dan pergumulan itu WAJIB, dan bahkan menyambut peralanan panjang yang pasti akan berliku tersebut untuk inshaAllah bisa sukses nantinya?⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Misalkan kita PILIH lebih siap untuk pilihan terakhir (berjuang)? ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Inilah mengapa saya mau sharing pergumulan saya, perjalanan saya dengan sharing Belajar Bersiap Ramadan. Lewat kursus ini, kamu InshaAllah akan berada di jalan menuju kesuksesan Ramadaan sebelum bulannya tiba, dan ketika nanti tiba kita inshaAllah sudah siap luar dalam dan melewati Ramadan yang indah. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Kelas dimulai Rabu, 10 April 2010 Info detail program: https://greenmommyshop.com/product/kursus-bersiap-ramadan/ Daftar untuk kursus Di link bio
The review does address the question of why children's reading and writing (especially for boys) have not been meeting expectations. Paragraph 3.25 of the Final Report states "This suggests that it is far more often the nature of the teaching than the nature of the child which determines success or failure in learning the 'basic' skills of reading and writing. This is not to say, however, that there is any lack of willingness or capability on the part of primary teachers to develop the required expertise in the teaching of beginner readers once convinced of the benefits to children of doing so. Rather, the main obstacles have been long-standing systemic confusion and conflicting views, especially about the teaching of phonics.[36] As more research and practice now converge in strong support of high-quality, systematic phonic work, schools can be confident that their investment in good-quality phonics training for teachers and in good systematic phonic programmes, whether commercial or provided by the National Strategies, will yield high returns for children."[37]
Dalam perkembangannya multimedia memiliki peranan dalam kehidupan manusia terutama pada anak-anak. Perkembangan teknologi multimedia membuka potensi besar dalam perubahan cara belajar, cara memperoleh informasi dan sebagainya. Demikian pula bagi para anak-anak,dengan adanya aplikasi multimedia interaktif diharapkan mereka akan lebih mudah menentukan dengan cara apa dan bagaimana menyerap informasi yang disampaikan secara cepat dan efisien. Sumber informasi dan ilmu yang mereka peroleh tidak lagi hanya terpaku pada buku tetapi lebih luas dan beraneka ragam. Apalagi dengan adanya jaringan internet yang akan membuat kemudahan dalam memperoleh informasi yang diperlukan.
Reading difficulty is one of the major problems faced by dyslexic children. Reading skill is the most crucial ability as it is required in the upper level of discovery of knowledge. In this research, Phonic Reading Technique and Multisensory Approach are blended with interactive multimedia, which incorporates multimedia elements such as text, graphics, video, and animation. The manner of applying those techniques in “Bijak Membaca” is discussed. The contents of this application are specifically designed to visualize letters, words, sentences, and pronunciations in the Malay language for dyslexics, aged 7-8 years, with awareness of their characteristics. In order to evaluate the design of its content, heuristic testing is conducted among multimedia lecturers and IT undergraduates. The result reveals that the contents are well designed with the inclusion of Phonic Reading Technique, Multisensory Approach, and suitable multimedia elements. It is also concluded as interesting, user-friendly, attractive, valuable, and supportive.
... Heuristic evaluation of this application indicates that the application is well designed in area of content, approach, and multimedia elements. Created in Malay language as well, Ahmad et al. [7] developed " Bijak Membaca " as an application for dyslexic children which applies Phonic Reading Technique, multisensory approach, and interactive multimedia. This application is also evaluated using heuristic approach. ...

Jika anak memulai sekolah di Perth dalam usia yang ‘nanggung, yaitu usia-usia 5-6 tahun, akan muncul sedikit tantangan bagi ortu dalam upaya belajar mereka. Anak-anak dalam usia seperti ini pastilah sudah pernah mengenal huruf ABC dan mengejanya dalam bahasa Indonesia, tetapi belum benar-benar bisa membaca. Dengan cara pengucapan yang sangat berbeda, wah…anak-anak pasti mengalami kebingungan. Setahu dia, What You See is What You Say! heheheheh…in English, of course you cannot just say what you see! Jika mempunyai anak-anak yang Verbal Geeks, wow…alhamdulillah deh, nggak perlu dibantu juga langsung ‘nangkep. Tetapi, saya yakin rata-rata anak akan mengalami learning curve shock!


Phonics training appears to be effective for improving some reading skills. Specifically, statistically significant effects were found for nonword reading accuracy (large effect), word reading accuracy (moderate effect), and letter‐sound knowledge (small‐to‐moderate effect). For several other outcomes, there were small or moderate effect sizes that did not reach statistical significance but may be meaningful: word reading fluency, spelling, phonological output, and reading comprehension. The effect for nonword reading fluency, which was measured in only one study, was in a negative direction, but this was not statistically significant.
Salah satu metode yang dapat dipakai serta disarankan saat ini adalah phonics. Suatu sistem pengajaran membaca dimana anak menyeruakan bunyi dari huruf yang ada. Contoh, huruf 'L' disuarakan dengan 'el', 'O' dengan 'Oh', dan 'G' dengan 'Geh', untuk membentuk satu kata LOG. Metode ini sudah dipakai Montessori lebih dari 100 tahun lalu, "papar Erlin Paulina Tambunan, staf pengajar di Ceria Montessori International School, Simpruk Jakarta Selatan.
Figure 5. Drag and Drop Activity Lastly, the reading activity is designed to enforce the Phonic Reading Technique with the application of the Multisensory Approach. Children need to read the given passage and be guided with pre-recorded voice using the correct Phonic Reading Technique. Users have to link their voice, ears, and eyes to perform this activity. IV. RESULT & FINDING In order to evaluate the interface design and usability aspect of the application, Hueristic Evaluation is conducted. Heuristic Evaluation is an informal usability analysis and it is recommended to be done with between three and five evaluators to view the interface design and give their comments [21]. The evaluators should be experts in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and other similar project areas. For this study, this evaluation is performed by multimedia lecturers from the Computer Science Department and IT undergraduates who are pursuing a course in HCI (Multimedia). The reason of choosing those students as evaluators is to acquire their feedbacks and comments based on their theoretical and practical knowledge in HCI.Their task is to look into the adaptation of learning strategies and multimedia content in “Bijak Membaca”. They are given a set of questionnaires that consists of five sections. The criteria that need to be evaluated are i) content and structure (adaptation of phonic reading and Multisensory Approach), ii) interface design, sound, navigation (multimedia elements), and iii) general feedback about the application. The scale used is from 1 to 5. Table 1 shows the scale with the description that is included in the questionnaires. TABLE 1: RANK OF ANSWERS Rank Value Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly Disagree 1 Figure 6 shows the result of the Heuristic Evaluation based on the content and feedback on structure. The result shows that most of the evaluators agree that this application is well designed with understandable content (mean=4.67) and reading technique (mean= 4.5), and suitable multisensory activities (mean=4.83). Figure 6. Result of Heuristic Evaluation on Content and Structure Based on the feedback shown in Figure 7, multimedia elements are designed and integrated very well as most of them agree with the interface design (mean=4.67), sound (mean=4.73), and navigation (mean=4.1) of the application. Figure 7. Result of Heuristic Evaluation on Multimedia Interactivity General feedback results (refer to Figure 8) obtained from this evaluation show that “Bijak Membaca” is accepted as an interesting (mean=4.33), user-friendly (mean=4.00), and attractive (mean=4.33) tool. It is also evaluated as valuable (mean=4.67) and supportive (mean=4.67). 2012 IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science & Engineering Research (CHUSER 2012), December 3-4, 2012, Kota Kinabalu,Sabah, Malaysia557
LOYALITAS bisa dikatakan hal yang langka saat ini. Tapi bukan berarti kesetiaan seorang pemain terhadap klub tidak pernah ada. Beberapa nama bahkan tak pernah berganti klub sejak memulai kariernya. Siapa saja mereka? 10. PELE (Santos 1956-1974, New York Cosmos 1975-1976) Pele memang mengakhiri kariernya di klub Amerika Serikat New York Cosmos. Namun sebagai pemain, ia lebih dikenal sebagai legenda Santos selama 18 tahun. "Real Madrid menginginkan saya, bersama Manchester United dan Juventus," katanya pada Eurocalcio dalam sebuah wawancara tahun 2009. Pele menambahkan, "Presiden Juventus bahkan hampir mencapai kesepakatan dengan...
Temani dan tuntun anak untuk belajar di web site http://www.starfall.com. This is a really amazing educational site, and it’s free! Semua bahan pelajaran bisa di download gratis. Web site ini sangat menyenangkan bagi anak-anak, karena masing-masing runtunan belajar diakhiri dengan game yang asyik-asyik. Tanpa sadar anak-anak akan belajar dan terus bertahan belajar. Juga, karena berupa mulitmedia interaktif, kita hanya perlu menemani dan memastikan anak mengikuti sequence belajar yang telah di sarankan, anak-anak tinggal melihat, menirukan, mengulangi bahan pelajaran multimedia tersebut. Spelling dan Pronounciation dijamin benar dong…nggak seperti kita jika mengajarinya sendiri. Selain itu, download saja bahan-bahan yang bisa dicetak sehingga anak tidak harus membuka komputer+internet untuk belajar. Mereka juga bisa melakukan aktifitas asyik dengan worksheet yang tersedia. Dan…tanpa menyadarinya mereka juga belajar MENULIS!

To understand the big picture, children must understand the alphabetic principle—how our English system of writing works. The alphabetic principle is simply that visual symbols (letters) represent speech sounds (phonemes). To write the spoken word “dog,” you use alphabetic symbols to represent the speech sounds. We can combine and recombine letter symbols to form words. As odd as it may sound, children can learn letters and even letter sounds in very rote ways without understanding the alphabetic system. When children do not understand the alphabetic principle, they may do the following:


So, I decided to figure this things out! Saya mulai baca-baca sana sini dan browsing-browsing ini itu. Alhamdulillah, akhirnya saya mendapatkan cara dan bahan yang menurut saya cukup ideal untuk dibelajarkan kepada anak-anak. Kuncinya adalah PHONICS! Inilah metoda belajar membaca bagi English Speaking children. Dengan Phonics, anak-anak diajarkan mengucapkan alfabet menurut bunyinya, misalnya ‘C’ bukan diucapkan ‘si’ tetapi ‘keh..’, ‘G’ bukan dibunyikan ‘ji’ tetapi ‘geh’. Setelah mengenal bunyi huruf, anak-anak akan dikenalkan dengan bentuk-bentuk kata yang berpola, semisal “short vowel”, “long vowel”, “r control”, dsb dsb. Tentu saja teorinya tidak perlu di baca oleh anak-anak, mereka tinggal mengikuti contoh-contoh yang sudah di susun sistematis. Mirip metoda IQRA! Luar biasa, tiba-tiba saja anak sudah bisa mengenali pola bunyi dan …bisa membaca! Persis seperti anak-anak yang belajar membaca huruf Arab dengan metoda Iqra!
Who's that giiiiirrrrrrrl⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Saya ngeliat banyak nama baru di online family saya ini 😉 welcooooome! 👋🏾 Jadi, Saya ingin ngasih perkenalan, kali-kali kamu wondering siapa sih wanita ituuuu? ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Ini sedikit tentang saya:⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Saya Deasi, Iya nama saya agak aneh dibanding kebanyakan nama Deasi lainnya (spellingnya nyeleneh) Karena itu kependekan dari nama ibu dan nenek (bukan karena Daisy itu bunga). Srihandinya dari Srikandi dengan twist nama kakek (kata nenek agar saya jadi wanita tangguh seperti Srikandi dan selalu ingat dengan keluarganya). Saya dipanggil Srikandi oleh guru PMP ketika di SMP beliau nolak saya pakai nama belakang asli, hanya untuk beliau katanya. I'm forever grateful ke ayah, ibu, nenek karena ngasih nama yang humble. Saya sebenarnya cinta dengan Empowering women 👱🏻‍♀️to Achieve Better Health, Revive Beauty 🌹 & Living a Sustainable Life 🌈✨ dan mungkin dibaliknya banyak yang nggak nyadar kalau saya as much suka dengan sustainability, I love helping Muslim women untuk membuat perubahan positif dikehidupannya (sesuatu yang selalu saya hinting sejak saya ngerti saya butuh untuk berubah). ⠀⠀⠀ Saya punya banyak anak Saya punya co-wives 2, lagi nyari yang terakhir ke 3 (kali ada yang mau daftar jadi sister saya? (for real, like really real!). ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Saya suka masak tapi nggak suka makan. Saya suka banget sama teh, I loooovvee tea (Especially kalau yang buatin tuh suami, he got tea master talent). ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ I’m in the PROCESS of re-inventing my self! Karena banyak hal yang masih jadi PR to please Allah.⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Saya suka sekali sama aroma hutan, sampai harus bikin produk aroma hutan buat GMS saking saya nggak bisa selalu cium hutan kalau sedang di kota (agar kangennya terobati).⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Saya tinggalnya mobile antara Green Mommy Shop dan Farm, dan mimpi untuk bisa tinggal hanya di farm saja. ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Sekarang giliran kamu⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Apa arti namamu? Kamu tinggalnya dimana? Dan apa minuman favoritmu?⠀⠀⠀ Saat ini kalian lagi di proses ngapain? ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀
Despite these different focuses, phonics instruction and phonemic awareness instruction are connected. In fact, phonemic awareness is necessary for phonics instruction to be effective. Before students can use a knowledge of sound-spelling relationships to decode written words, they must understand that words (whether written or spoken) are made up of sounds. Phonemic awareness is the understanding that a word is made up of a series of discrete sounds. Without this insight, phonics instruction will not make sense to students.
In the first 60 lessons, all of Reading Eggs’ books are highly decodable, using words that have been introduced and reinforced by the lessons. The program responds to readers at their level of ability, making it possible for children to consistently read at their own individual level. This is extremely beneficial for their learning and overall confidence.
Kim Burnim: Phonics is taught in the early years because it is an important part of learning how to read. Most instruction typically occurs from kindergarten through second grade. In kindergarten, children should learn the sounds of individual letters, and in the first and second grades they should be learning more advanced principles of phonics, such as rules for short and long vowel sounds. But it’s important to keep in mind that children learn at different rates. Some children need very little phonics instruction; others need more. Some children are ready to start learning the sounds of the letters prior to kindergarten, and some children do best with more advanced phonics instruction all the way into third grade. And research has shown that older children who have difficulty reading can also benefit from phonics instruction—which shows just how important it is for children to learn phonics early on.

Imagine going to work for a shipbuilding company. You go to work the first day and are schooled in all the different types of bolts, screws, and nails. You learn their names, the different sizes, and the different types, but you never learn that their purpose is to join pieces of metal and that those pieces of metal are used to build ships! Although this situation is clearly ridiculous, it is actually analogous to what we see in some prekindergarten and kindergarten classrooms. Children are being taught to name letters or even identify the sounds that the letters represent, but they are unclear about why they are learning it. Letter-sound knowledge is being learned in a vacuum; the child has no context for how to use the information, no “big picture.”


As well as working through the alphabet, and the sounds that each letter makes, Reading Eggs also includes lessons on phonics skills such as working with beginning and end blends of letters, the variety of sounds that vowels make, diphthongs, consonant letter sounds such as soft c, g, and y, silent letters, double letter sounds, word families, and how to work through words with more than one syllable.
Jika anak memulai sekolah di Perth dalam usia yang ‘nanggung, yaitu usia-usia 5-6 tahun, akan muncul sedikit tantangan bagi ortu dalam upaya belajar mereka. Anak-anak dalam usia seperti ini pastilah sudah pernah mengenal huruf ABC dan mengejanya dalam bahasa Indonesia, tetapi belum benar-benar bisa membaca. Dengan cara pengucapan yang sangat berbeda, wah…anak-anak pasti mengalami kebingungan. Setahu dia, What You See is What You Say! heheheheh…in English, of course you cannot just say what you see! Jika mempunyai anak-anak yang Verbal Geeks, wow…alhamdulillah deh, nggak perlu dibantu juga langsung ‘nangkep. Tetapi, saya yakin rata-rata anak akan mengalami learning curve shock!
Reading difficulty is one of the major problems faced by dyslexic children. Reading skill is the most crucial ability as it is required in the upper level of discovery of knowledge. In this research, Phonic Reading Technique and Multisensory Approach are blended with interactive multimedia, which incorporates multimedia elements such as text, graphics, video, and animation. The manner of applying those techniques in “Bijak Membaca” is discussed. The contents of this application are specifically designed to visualize letters, words, sentences, and pronunciations in the Malay language for dyslexics, aged 7-8 years, with awareness of their characteristics. In order to evaluate the design of its content, heuristic testing is conducted among multimedia lecturers and IT undergraduates. The result reveals that the contents are well designed with the inclusion of Phonic Reading Technique, Multisensory Approach, and suitable multimedia elements. It is also concluded as interesting, user-friendly, attractive, valuable, and supportive.
Yakin, anak akan bisa membaca dengan sendirinya jika sudah tiba waktunya??? Kapan??? Fyi, moms, jika memang anak akan bisa membaca dengan sendirinya jika sudah waktunya tanpa perlu distimulus maka pasti ga ada yg namanya buta huruf. Iya kan? Masuk logika ga??? Think! Pada kenyataannya, banyak kan orang dewasa atau orangtua pada zaman ini yg masih buta huruf. Ada juga yg baru belajar huruf/membaca. Kenapa? Think! Karena membaca itu adalah sebuah keterampilan, yang untuk menguasainya perlu latihan. Nah, sebelum latihan, distimulus / dirangsang dulu agar otak anak mulai terbiasa melihat/berinteraksi dengan huruf/simbol. Tentu dengan memperhatikan kesiapan anak ya moms.. Jika ditemukan tanda anak belum siap belajar simbol/huruf, maka ditunda dulu belajarnya, tes lagi 4 Bulan kemudian. Sudah tercerahkan? Atau masih ada yg mengganjal?? *By: Bunda Qoty Intan Zulnida Yuk wa saya di 085878491586 untuk chit-chat lebih lanjut. 😉

Nell K. Duke is a professor of language, literacy, and culture, and a professor in the combined program in education and psychology, at the University of Michigan. Her work focuses on early literacy development, particularly among children living in poverty. Heidi Anne E. Mesmer is a professor of literacy in the School of Education at Virginia Tech. A former third-grade teacher, her work focuses on beginning reading materials and text difficulty.


English has absorbed many words from other languages throughout its history, usually without changing the spelling of those words. As a result, the written form of English includes the spelling patterns of many languages (Old English, Old Norse, Norman French, Classical Latin and Greek, as well as numerous modern languages) superimposed upon one another.[7] These overlapping spelling patterns mean that in many cases the same sound can be spelled differently and the same spelling can represent different sounds. However, the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions.[8] In addition, the Great Vowel Shift, a historical linguistic process in which the quality of many vowels in English changed while the spelling remained as it was, greatly diminished the transparency of English spelling in relation to pronunciation.
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