The use of phonics in American education dates at least to the work of Favell Lee Mortimer, whose works using phonics includes the early flashcard set Reading Disentangled (1834) and text Reading Without Tears (1857). Despite the work of 19th-century proponents such as Rebecca Smith Pollard, some American educators, prominently Horace Mann, argued that phonics should not be taught at all. This led to the commonly used "look-say" approach ensconced in the Dick and Jane readers popular in the mid-20th century. Beginning in the 1950s, however, inspired by a landmark study by Dr. Harry E. Houtz, and spurred by Rudolf Flesch's criticism of the absence of phonics instruction (particularly in his popular book, Why Johnny Can't Read) phonics resurfaced as a method of teaching reading.
Figure 5. Drag and Drop Activity Lastly, the reading activity is designed to enforce the Phonic Reading Technique with the application of the Multisensory Approach. Children need to read the given passage and be guided with pre-recorded voice using the correct Phonic Reading Technique. Users have to link their voice, ears, and eyes to perform this activity. IV. RESULT & FINDING In order to evaluate the interface design and usability aspect of the application, Hueristic Evaluation is conducted. Heuristic Evaluation is an informal usability analysis and it is recommended to be done with between three and five evaluators to view the interface design and give their comments . The evaluators should be experts in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and other similar project areas. For this study, this evaluation is performed by multimedia lecturers from the Computer Science Department and IT undergraduates who are pursuing a course in HCI (Multimedia). The reason of choosing those students as evaluators is to acquire their feedbacks and comments based on their theoretical and practical knowledge in HCI.Their task is to look into the adaptation of learning strategies and multimedia content in “Bijak Membaca”. They are given a set of questionnaires that consists of five sections. The criteria that need to be evaluated are i) content and structure (adaptation of phonic reading and Multisensory Approach), ii) interface design, sound, navigation (multimedia elements), and iii) general feedback about the application. The scale used is from 1 to 5. Table 1 shows the scale with the description that is included in the questionnaires. TABLE 1: RANK OF ANSWERS Rank Value Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly Disagree 1 Figure 6 shows the result of the Heuristic Evaluation based on the content and feedback on structure. The result shows that most of the evaluators agree that this application is well designed with understandable content (mean=4.67) and reading technique (mean= 4.5), and suitable multisensory activities (mean=4.83). Figure 6. Result of Heuristic Evaluation on Content and Structure Based on the feedback shown in Figure 7, multimedia elements are designed and integrated very well as most of them agree with the interface design (mean=4.67), sound (mean=4.73), and navigation (mean=4.1) of the application. Figure 7. Result of Heuristic Evaluation on Multimedia Interactivity General feedback results (refer to Figure 8) obtained from this evaluation show that “Bijak Membaca” is accepted as an interesting (mean=4.33), user-friendly (mean=4.00), and attractive (mean=4.33) tool. It is also evaluated as valuable (mean=4.67) and supportive (mean=4.67). 2012 IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science & Engineering Research (CHUSER 2012), December 3-4, 2012, Kota Kinabalu,Sabah, Malaysia557
SAYA BUTUH LIBURAN, MIND BREAK, ROUTINE BREAK DI LUAR FARM NGGAK SIH BIAR HIDUP DI FARM (HIDUP OFF GRID SUSTAINABLE) ITU BISA BAHAGIA? “Jujur mikirin aja, rasanya saya mau gila untuk tinggal jauh dari peradaban modern/kota.” Tulisan ini adalah curhatan dari jalan-jalannya kakiku antara kota dan farm, dan hasil pengamatan atas anggota keluarga […]
Phonemic awareness involves the understanding of the relationship between sounds and words. It explains how words are made of sounds that can be used, like reusable building blocks, to construct words (h + at = hat, f + at = fat, etc). Phonics goes one step further by connecting those sounds to written symbols. It involves learning how letters or letter groups represent unique sounds, and how those sounds are blended to form a word.
Learning is more than knowledge acquisition; it often involves the active participation of the learner in a variety of knowledge-and skills-based learning and training activities. Interactive multimedia technology can support the variety of interaction channels and languages required to facilitate interactive learning and teaching. A conceptual architecture for interactive educational multimedia ... [Show full abstract]View full-text
Figure 8. Result of Heuristic Evaluation on General Feedback V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE STUDY “Bijak Membaca” is an interactive multimedia application that blends the Phonic Reading Technique and Multisensory Approach to improve dyslexics reading skill. Results obtained from Heuristic Evaluation indicate that this application successfully integrates those learning strategies as most of them agree with the content and structure. It shows that this application is designed and arranged in a proper way that suits dyslexics’ preferences. Credit is also given for the use of multimedia elements in this application as its interface design is easy to understand with good navigation arrangement. Generally, most of the evaluators agree that this application can give a significant impact to dyslexics as it is interesting, user-friendly, attractive, supportive, and valuable. “Bijak Membaca” can be an alternative reading tool for dyslexics to improve their reading with the effectiveness of the Phonic Reading Technique and Multisensory Approach. However, there are some improvements that are suggested by the evaluators such as inclusion of all letters instead of critical letters for the dyslexics, different types of exercises in reading activity and entertainment elements. In future, this research can be extended with the inclusion of Intelligent Multisensory Approach as part of the content so that dyslexics can fully utilize their verbal, visual and psycho-motor abilities. REFERENCES  R. P. Rachel. “D is for…, Scholastic Parent & Child”, ProQuest Education Journals, 18(2), pp. 93-95, Oct. 2010  C. Singleton. “Understanding Dyslexia”, Lucid Research, 19, Jan. 2003.  H. Sampath, J. Sivaswamy and B. Indurkhya. “Assistive System for Children with Dyslexia and Autism”, ACM SIGACCESS Accessibility and Computing, Issue 96, Jan. 2010.  L. L. Wah. “Development of Multimedia Learning Resources for Children with Learning Disabilities in an Undergraduate Special Eduction Technology Course”, MDEC, 1(8), 2007.  P. Tzouveli, A. Schmidt, M. Schneider, A. Symvonis and S. Kollias. “Adaptive Reading Assistive for the Inclusion of Students with Dyslexia : The AGENT - DSYL Approach”, Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Tecnologies, pp. 167-171, 2008.  J. Ohene-DJan and R. Begum. "Multisensory Games for Dyslexic Children", Eighth IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Tecnologies, pp. 1040-1043, 2008.  S.S.Ismail, R.Ismail E.M.Mohd Mahidin, K.Umar and M.Z.Mohd Yusoff, “E-Z Disleksia For Dyslexic Children”, in Proceedings of Regional Conference on Knowledge Integration in ICT 2010, pp. 435-445, 2010.  A. Scruggs. “Effective Reading Instruction Strategies for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities” Lynchburg College.  N. N. Eliani and A. Othman. “Siri Cepat membaca : Bacalah Anakku”, One-Stop Language & Computer Consultancy, 2011.  G. Myles. “Pronounciation Activities in Extensive Reading Classes”, Extensive Reading World Congress Proceeding, 1, pp. 172-175, 2012.  I. Zahid and M. S. Omar. “Fonetik dan Fonologi. Malaysia”, PTS Professional, 2006.  K. Hamdi and L. Chonlada. “Effects of Intensive Phonics Instruction on Reading and Spelling Attainment of Thai Grade 5 Learners with Reading Difficulties”, The 3rd International Conference on Humanities and Social Sciences, Prince of Songkla University Proceedings-Teaching Techniques, 2011.  J. Khakhar and S. Madhvanath. “Jolly mate : Assistive Technology for Young Children with Dyslexia." 12th International Conference on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, 5, 2010.  R. A. Bolhasan. “A Study of Dyslexia among Primary School Students in Sarawak, Malaysia”, School of Doctoral Studies Journal, 1, pp. 250-265, 2009.  L. M. H Abdullah, S. Hisham, and S. Parumo. “MyLexics : An Assistive Courseware for Dyslexic Children to Learn Basic Malay Language”, SIGACCESS ‘09, 2009. 2012 IEEE Colloquium on Humanities, Science & Engineering Research (CHUSER 2012), December 3-4, 2012, Kota Kinabalu,Sabah, Malaysia558
Teach letter names before teaching the sounds of the letters. It is easier for students to learn the sounds for those letters that contain their sound in the initial position in their names (b,d,j,k,p,t,v,z), followed by those letters whose sounds are embedded within the letter’s name (f,l,m,n,r,s,x), leaving for last those letters whose sounds are not found in the letter’s name (h, w, y).
^ "National Reading Panel (NRP) – Publications and Materials – Summary Report". National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2000. Archived from the original on 2010-06-10.
In the reading skills pyramid, a visual illustration of the process kids go through when learning to read, phonics follows closely behind phonemic awareness. Once children understand that letters have associated sounds, they begin to make relationships between those sounds and spelling. This is the skill that helps beginning readers decode — or sound out — new words. The key elements of reading are: